MUCHAMAD ARIF

I. IDENTIFYING VERB

  1. INFLECTION
    • The third singular inflection

Example: hopes

    • Past tense inflection

Example: wanted

    • Past Participle inflection

Example: known

    • Present Participle inflection

Example: going

  1. FUNCTION WORDS/AUXILIARIES
    • Auxiliaries appearing with the base form of the verb

Example: can make

    • Auxiliaries appearing with the past participle

Example: is added

    • Auxiliaries appearing with the infinitive form of the verb

Example: am going to go

    • Auxiliaries appearing with the present participle

Example: is going

  1. DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES
    • /-ate/ example: implicate
    • /-ize/ example: idolize
    • /-fy/ example: beautify
    • /-ish/ example: finish
    • /-en/ example: whiten
    • /en-/ example: endanger
  1. POSITION
    • Utterance initial position.

Example: Bring your dictionary!

    • The position between two nouns.

Example: Cat chases mouse.

  1. SUPERFIXES

Example: Im`port

II. IDENTIFYING ADJECTIVE

  1. Between noun determiner and noun.

Example: The strong man

  1. Immediately following the function word very

Example: very strong

  1. Base adjective
    • Inflectional suffixes /-er/ and /-est/

Examples: cheaper and cheapest

    • They serve as stems from which nouns and adverbs are formed by the derivational suffixes {-ness} and {-ly}

Example: adjective Noun Adverb

Strange Strangeness Strangely

    • Most base adjectives are one syllable, none have more than 2 syllables except a few that begin with a derivational prefix.

Example: uncommon

    • A fair number of base adjectives form verbs by adding the derivational suffix {en}, the prefix {en-}, or both.

Example: brighten

  1. Derived adjectives
    • {-ly}, added to one and two syllable nouns and bound stems.

Example: healthy

    • {-al}, added to nouns and bound stems.

Example: natural

    • {-able}, added to verbs and bound stems.

Example: understandable

    • {-ful} and {-less}, added to nouns.

Examples: hopeful and hopeless

    • {-ar}, {-ary}, {-ic}, {-ish}, and {-ous}, added to nouns and bound stems.

Examples: popular, childish, and climatic

    • {-ent}and {-ive}, added to verbs and bound stems.

Examples: convenient and active

    • {-en}, added to nouns.

Example: wooden

    • {D}, added to verbs, nouns and some bound stems.

Example: tired

    • {-ing}, added to verbs.

Example: interesting

    • {-ly}, added to nouns and some bound stems.

Example: Adj [ Noun or Base + {-ly}] Adv [adj + {-ly}]

Friendly Widely

Ugly Crazily

III. IDENTIFYING ADVERB

  1. The position

Example: The man told us his story aloud.

  1. Derivational suffix
    • {-ly} Example: hopefully
    • {-wise} Example: lengthwise
    • {-ward(s)} Example: homewards
  2. Derivational prefix {a-}

Example: aloud

  1. Combining the noun-determiners some, any, every, and no with a limited list of nouns and function words.

Examples: someplace and nowhere

  1. Preposition (in, on, out, up, down, over, under, inside, around, etc)

Example: He brought the cat in.

  1. Miscellaneous class of those that have no formal markers at all to distinguish them in isolation.
  • Frequent

Examples: now, then, seldom, perhaps, still, and even.

  • Other pars of speech

Examples: yesterday, home, later, far, and downstairs.

  1. Inflectional suffix (comparative and superlative degree)

Examples: still more easily, a little slower and much harder.

By: Arif